Solar Neutrinos ab 237.49 € als gebundene Ausgabe: Proceedings of the 5th International Solar Neutrino Conference 5th International Solar Neutrino Conference Dresden Germany 11 - 14 June 2018. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Physik,
The physics of neutrinos--uncharged elementary particles that are key to helping us better understand the nature of our universe--is one of the most exciting frontiers of modern science. This book provides a comprehensive overview of neutrino physics today and explores promising new avenues of inquiry that could lead to future breakthroughs. The Physics of Neutrinos begins with a concise history of the field and a tutorial on the fundamental properties of neutrinos, and goes on to discuss how the three neutrino types interchange identities as they propagate from their sources to detectors. The book shows how studies of neutrinos produced by such phenomena as cosmic rays in the atmosphere and nuclear reactions in the solar interior provide striking evidence that neutrinos have mass, and it traces our astounding progress in deciphering the baffling experimental findings involving neutrinos. The discovery of neutrino mass offers the first indication of a new kind of physics that goes beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles, and this book considers the unanticipated patterns in the masses and mixings of neutrinos in the framework of proposed new theoretical models. The Physics of Neutrinos maps out the ambitious future facilities and experiments that will advance our knowledge of neutrinos, and explains why the way forward in solving the outstanding questions in neutrino science will require the collective efforts of particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun&#8217;s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun&#8217;s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun&#8217;s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore provides modern interpretations of ozone depletion and global warming that are related to both the Sun and to human activities. Written in a light and friendly style, this lavishly illustrated book introduces the Sun and its physics, and describes all aspects of the Sun&#8217;s interaction with us on Earth.
1 The Investigation of Hole States in Nuclei by Means of Knockout and Other Reactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Formalism for Knockout and Pickup Reactions.- 2.1. The Matrix Element and Overlap Integral.- 2.2 The Single-Nucleon Case.- 2.3. The Two-Nucleon Case.- 2.4. The Multi-Nucleon Case.- 2.5. Distortion and Finite-Range Effects.- 3. Single-Nucleon Knockout and Related Reactions.- 3.1. Comparison of Knockout and Pickup Reactions.- 3.2. Special Features of Knockout Reactions.- 3.3. Spectroscopic Studies.- 3.4. Proton States.- 3.5. Neutron States.- 4. Cluster Knockout and Related Reactions.- 4.1. Comparison of Knockout and Absorption Processes.- 4.2. The Quasi-Free or Peripheral Model.- 4.3. The Microscopic Model.- 4.4. The Effect of Exchange.- 4.5. Spectroscopic Studies.- 4.6. Comparison with Pickup Reactions.- 5. Other Reactions.- 5.1. Pion Reactions.- 5.2. Kaon Capture.- 5.3. Coulomb Disintegration.- 5.4. Inelastic Scattering to the Continuum.- 6. Summary and Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 2 High-Energy Scattering from Nuclei.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Models of High-Energy Scattering. Scattering of Objects with ¿Preexisting¿ Subunits.- 3. Existing Evidence Supporting Our Understanding of the High-Energy Scattering.- 3.1. Scattering from Deuteron.- 3.2. Scattering from 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, and 9Be Targets.- 3.3. Scattering from 12C and 16O Targets.- 3.4. Scattering from 27A1, 64Cu, 208Pb, and 238U Targets.- 3.5. Total Cross Sections.- 4. Scattering of Objects without ¿Preexisting¿ Subunits. Scattering from Fluctuations.- 5. Prospects of what Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics Can Learn from High-Energy Nuclear Scattering.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgments.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- References.- 3 Nucleosynthesis by Charged-Particle Reactions.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Nuclear and Elemental Abundances.- 1.2. Possible Sites for Nucleosynthesis.- 1.3. Nucleosynthetic Processes.- 2. Charged-Particle Reaction Rates.- 2.1. General Case and Definitions.- 2.2. Nonresonant Charged-Particle Reactions.- 2.3. Isolated Narrow Resonances.- 2.4. Broad Overlapping Resonances.- 2.5. Excited State Reactions.- 2.6. High Level Density Region, Continuum Cross Sections.- 3. Hydrogen Burning.- 3.1. The p-p Chain.- 3.2. The C¿N¿O Bi-Cycle.- 3.3. Solar Neutrinos.- 4. Helium Burning.- 4.1. The Triple-? Process.- 4.2. The 12C(?, ?)16O Reaction.- 4.3. Further Helium-Burning Reactions and Comparison with Abundances.- 4.4. 14N(?, ?)18F and 18O(?, ?)22Ne.- 5. Synthesis of the Nuclei with 20 ? A ? 60.- 5.1. Quiescent Carbon and Oxygen Burning.- 5.2. Quiescent Silicon Burning.- 5.3. Explosive Carbon, Oxygen, and Silicon Burning: Supernovae.- 6. Synthesis of the Nuclei with A ? 60 and the l-Process.- 6.1. The s- and r-Processes.- 6.2. Possible Neutron Sources.- 6.3. The p-Process.- 6.4. The l-Process: Synthesis of D, Li, Be, and B.- 7. Nucleosynthesis in Massive Exploding Objects.- 7.1. Universal Nucleosynthesis.- 7.2. Nucleosynthesis in Supermassive Objects.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 4 Nucleosynthesis and Neutron-Capture Cross Sections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Development of Neutron Buildup Theory.- 3. Stellar Neutron Sources.- 4. Neutron Capture Cross Sections.- 4.1. Techniques in the Measurement of keV Capture Cross Sections.- 4.2. Maxwellian-Averaged Cross Sections at 30 keV.- 4.3. Comments on Cross-Section Data.- 5. Abundance-Cross-Section Correlations.- 5.1. Abundances.- 5.2. Solar System Ns?(A).- 5.3. Isotopic Tests of Ns?(A).- 5.4. Comments on Ns?(A) and Nr(A).- 5.5. r-Process Abundances¿Nr(A).- 5.6. Chronology.- 6. Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 5 Nuclear Structure Studies in the Z = 50 Region.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Tin Region.- 1.2. Shell-Model Description.- 2. Experimental Data.- 2.1. Even-Mass Tin Isotopes.- 2.2. Odd-Mass Tin Isotopes.- 2.3. Odd-Mass Antimony Isotopes.- 2.4. Odd-Mass Indium Isotopes.- 3. Theoretical Calculations.- 3.1. General Discussion.- 3.2. Comparison with Experimental Results.- 4. Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- General References.- Even-Mass Tin Isotopes.- Odd-Mass Tin Isotopes.- Odd-Mass Antimony Isotopes.- Odd-Mass Indium Isotopes.- Pittsburgh Calculations.- Trieste Calculations.- Chalk River Calculations.- 6 An s¿d-Shell-Model Study for A = 18¿22.- 1
This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei - Clusters and groups of galaxies - Cosmology. As well as much explanatory material and extensive and up-to-date bibliographies.
Neutrinos play a key role in many areas of particle physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics. The recent discovery of neutrino oscillation has given the first hint of new physics beyond the standard model. Clearly, it is extremely important to study further the oscillation and other fundamental properties of neutrinos. It is also important to improve our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus reactions, which are crucial for understanding a large class of astrophysical phenomena. These and many other interesting questions can be investigated at stopped pion neutrino facilities like the one planned for the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.The purpose of the Carolina Symposium was twofold: (1) to explore and exchange ideas on the latest developments in general frontiers of neutrino physics and related fields; (2) to address specific issues pertaining to the above-mentioned stopped pion neutrino facility. Among the topics covered in the proceedings are: cosmology and neutrino; standard model tests with neutrinos; neutrino oscillation, experiments and theories; dark matter search; double beta-decay; rare events detection techniques; the solar neutrino problem; supernova explosion; nucleosynthesis; and the ORLaND project.
'How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the coreof this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and to help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this story revealing what we have discovered about phenomena from eclipses to neutrinos, space weather, and global warming. This Second Edition is updated throughout, and features results from the current spacecraft that are aloft, especially NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, for which one of the authors designed some the telescopes'--Provided by publisher.
Dynamic Sun presents a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. The chapters are written by leading scientists in solar physics and deal with solar models and neutrinos, seismic Sun, rotation of the solar interior, helioseismic tomography, solar dynamo, spectro-polarimetry, solar photosphere and convection, dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere, and solar transition region. With an introduction by eminent astrophysicist Eugene Parker, the twenty chapters are fully illustrated and have comprehensive reference lists.